The aim of the dissertation is the evolution of the river valley floor duringmthe last 15,000 years. The monography overlaps issues of geography, geomorphology and geoarchaeology. For years, researchers have been interested in changes affecting river valleys, but a comprehensive study ofthis issue for the Nida River has been lacking. The aim ofthis study is to capture the most important regularities and phases ofthe evolution ofthe Middle and Lower Nida Valley during the Late Glacial and Holocene, and to determine the significance and influence of natural factors and human activities (both in the Prehistorie and historical times) on the environment changes that resulted in the transformation offluvial processes shaping the relief and sediments ofthe flood plain. The location ofthe catchment in a loess area and, at the same time, outside the area of the Old Polish Industrial District, madę it possible to capture the impact ofNeolithisation and, at the same time, to eliminate the effect of the Prehistorie and historical mining and metallurgical activities on the transformation of the catchment environment and the riverbed itself(e.g. the construction of an anthropogenic smali water retention system). The estuarial section of the Nida River to the Vistula enabled the tracing of interactions in valley bottom formation between rivers differing considerably (10 times) in size. The study focused on the importance of various factors of valley morphogenesis at the local scalę, establishing the architecture ofthe valley bottom, the amount, structure and age of cut and fills, identifying changes in channel pattem, determining phases of erosion and accumulation, as well as periods of an inereased fluvial activity. The dissertation is based on queries of geological, palaeogeographical, archaeological and historical sources, as well as field studies including geomorphological and geological mapping of the Quatemary sediments and laboratory analyses of deposits (sedimentological analyses, e.g. sieve, laser analysis, organie matter content, carbonate content; malacological analysis) using absolute dating methods (TL and 14C) to establish the chronological framework, as well as chamber methods (Archaeological Map of Poland, archaeological sources, historical, cartographic).
Based on the results of the interdisciplinary study, it was concluded that the geological, lithological and tectonic conditions as well as the Quatemary evolution, which differed from section to section, created the main relief features and had a very strong influence on the development ofthe valley in the Late Glacial and Holocene. The floodplain began to be shaped in the Late Pleistocene, as in other valleys. Changes ofthe Nida River pat tern during the last 15 000 years followed a different pattern from the Falkowski (1982) model with additions by Kalicki (1991) and Krupa (2013). No the Late Glacial large meanders were found, and the river anastomosed (anabrached type) throughout almost the entire Holocene, forming differential cut and fills. In last centuries, the Nida has become a single channel, meandering river rather than a braided as in the aforementioned model. The architecture ofthe Nida Valley floor is very complex. It has incorporated tectonic formations (through) and inversion karst forms (polja). The river bed has been locally overlain by tributary alluvial fans that reflect phases of deforestation in the Neolithic, Roman and Medieval periods. In the estuarine section of the Nida River, the Vistula's cut and fills 'close' the Nida alluvium inside its valley. This prevented the accumulation ofthe alluvial fan through the Nida into the Sandomierz Basin in the Holocene. The increase of fluvial activity throughout the catchment occurred during the Middle Atlantic (6700-6000 BP), the Roman Period and the Little Ice Age, which is consistent with the phases delineated for Central European rivers (Kalicki 2006). Anthropopressure in the catchment has increased sińce the Neolithic several times, especially in the right-bank loess part of the catchment. It is recorded, for example, in the Mozgawka alluvial fans (Neolithic, Roman period, Middle Ages), torrential fans at the mouth of dry valleys (Middle Ages) and proluvial fans (Gorysławice/Żydowiec - Lusatian culture), deluvial covers (Neolithic, Middle Ages). Direct human interference in the Nida fluvial system has been recorded sińce the Middle Ages in the estuarine section, e g. an artificial channel to the west of the castle in Nowy Korczyn. However, it was not until the embankment ofthe estuarial section ofthe Nida River in the 1930s-40s that the backwater phenomenon appeared. The dissertation demonstrates the distinctiveness of the Nida Valley not only regionally, but also beyond the regional level in Poland and even in Central Europe.
Jan 10, 2024
Jan 10, 2024
|Biesaga, Piotr, Ewolucja dna doliny Nidy między Stawami a ujściem w późnym glacjale i holocenie
|Jan 10, 2024