Contemporary discussions on the shape of the social world and the role and place in it to be given to human beings, also regarding the process of education they are subjected to, prove very extensive and oftentimes lead to controversies, even conflicts. One of the reasons of such situation seems to be the close relation between pedagogy and ideology, the latter providing answers to questions similar, and at times iden tical, to the ones posed by pedagogy. However, due to the nature and specificity of ideological thinking and the rather extra rational manner of validation assumed in it, the question of admissibility of such connection arises. The analyses of such situations, which the Polish pedagogy had experienced, may prove very illuminating in thus delineated context. These concern the impact that real socialism had upon education, particularly in the period of 1948/50 1989/90. It may be significant as the ideolog y is still alive today and provides inspiration for pedagogy both internationally and in Poland. What were the effects of the inspirations drawn from socialist thought for the Polish pedagogy and what was their influence upon the institutional and systemic solutions adopted in the actual social life? The paper is an attempt at analysing that very issue.