The article describes the history of the 5th Infantry Division in the first years after World War II. The division was created in 1944 and took part in the battles of the Polish Second Army on the Eastern Front in 1945. After the war had finished, the division became part of the Military District No. V Poznan and was deployed in garrisons in the Lubusz Land. It opened a new period in its history, in the difficult first post-war years. The article discusses its organizational changes, training of soldiers, educational activities, participation in agricultural work as well as the battles with the Polish independence underground in the eastern Polish territories. The modernization of the Polish army in 1949 brought significant changes in the organization and deployment of the division, at the same time opening another chapter in its history.